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Indian National Symbols – Flag, Emblem, calendar, Anthem, Song, Animal

by Vinodh Reddy

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National Flag

Indian national flag
  • India National Flag was adopted by constituent assembly of India on July 22, 1947.
  • A tricolor flag was first accepted by the Indian National Congress in 1931, having Charkha in place of today’s Chakra.
  • Indian national flag is a horizontal tricolour which three colours have meanings, deep Saffron at top ( stands for courage, sacrifice and renunciation), White at middle (shows truth and purity in thoughts), dark green at the bottom (symbol of life abundance and prosperity).
  • A wheel (Chakra) in centre of the white strip is the symbol of progress and movements. It has 24 spokes.
  • Length to Breadth of National flag is in the ratio 3:2.
  • Supreme Court declared the right to hoist flag as a Fundamental Right under Article 19 i) (a) of the constitution in 2002. Flag hoisting in India is regulated by flag code of India, 2002.
  • The flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya and first time, the flag was hoisted by Sacchindra Prasad Bose in 1906 at Calcutta and later on in year 1907, an another tricolor flag was unfurled by Madam Bhikaji Cama in stuttgart.
  • The first national flag committee was headed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

National Emblem

Indian national emblem
  • National anthem is adopted from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka on January 26, 1950.
  • In national emblem of India, only are three lions are visible, the fourth lion is being hidden.
  • The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left. The bell shaped lotus (as in the original) has been omitted. The other animals present in the emblem are :- An Elephant and a lion.
  • The words Satyameva Jayateare inscribed below the abacus in Devanagiri script. These words are taken from Mundaka Upanishad.
  • Similar structure of Sarnath lion capital was also found in Thailand.

National Calendar

National Calendar is based on Saka Era (began on 78 A.D.) with Chaitra as its first month and Phalguna as its last month with a normal year of 365 days adopted from March 22, 1957 along with the Gregorian Calendar.

National Anthem

  • National Anthem of India is ‘Jana gana mana‘ which was composed by Rabindra Nath Tagore in 1911, originally in bengali.
  • The song Jana gana mana was was adopted by Constituent Assembly in January 24th 1950 in Hindi Version.
  • The song Jana gana mana was first published in January , 1912 under the title ‘Bharat Vidhata‘ in Tattva Bodhini Patrika.
  • The song was translated in English in 1919 wit the title Morning Song of India.
  • Playing time of full version of National Anthem is 52 seconds while it is 20 seconds for first and last lines of the stanza.

National Song

  • National song of India is ‘Vande Mataram‘ which was composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, originally in Sankrit.
  • It was adopted on January 24, 1950, providing it equal status with National Anthem Jana gana mana.
  • The song Vande Mataram is taken form his novel Anand Math published in 1882. Its English translation was done by Sri Aurobindo.
  • It was sung for first time at the Congress Session of 1896.

National Animal

  • National animal of India is Tiger (Panthera Tigris). It has yellow thick coat of fur with dark stripes.
  • Lion was national Animal of till 1972. Later on it was replaced by Tiger.

National Bird —- Peacock (Pavo Cristatus)
National Flower —- Lotus (nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn)
National River —- Ganga
National Tree —- Banyan (Ficus Benghalensis)
National Fruit —- Mango (mangifera Indica)
National Aquatic Animal —- Ganges River dolphib
National heritage animal —- Elephant
National Game —- Hockey
National currency —- Indian Rupee

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