Follow

EduGeneral

Introduction to Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization)

by Vinodh Reddy

Share

  • Indus Valley Civilization (2350-1750 BC) is also called as Harappan civilization because Harappa was the first site to be excavated in 1921 under the supervision of Daya Ram Sahni.
  • The known extent of the civilization in the west is upto Sutkagendor in Baluchistan; Alamgirpur South; and Manda (Jammu and Kashmir) in the north.
  • Indus Valley civilization belongs to Bronge Age/ Chalcolithic age. Hence, it is also called bronze age civilization.
  • Contemporary civilizations of Harappan civilization are Mesopotamian or Sumerian civilization, Egyptian civilization and Chinese civilization.

Important Sites of Harappan Civilization

S.No

Site

Location

River bank

1

Harappa

Montegomari, Punjab (Pakistan)

Ravi

2

Mohenjodaro

Larkana, Sindh (Pakistan)

Indus

3

Sutkagenoor

Baluchistan (Pakistan)

Dashta

4

Chanhudaro

Sindh (Pakistan)

Indus

5

Rangpur

Ahmedabad (India)

Meedar

6

Kalibangan

Ganganagar (Rajasthan)

Ghaggar

7

Lothal

Ahmedabad

Sabarmati & Bhogva

8

Banwali

Hissar (Haryana)

Saraswati

Note: large number of Harappan Civilization sites were found in Gujarat.

General Facts About Some Sites

1. Harappa

  • Working floors consisting of rows of circular brick platforms which were meant for threshing grain have been found here.
  • Six granaries and sixteen agnikundas (firepits) have been found here.
  • People of Harappa knew the process of making tarcoal.
  • Main gate for the entry in the houses of Harappa was in the north direction.
  • R-37 cementry have been found here.
  • Terracotto figurine of Mother goddess have been found here.

2. Mohenjodaro

  • Mohenjodaro was discovered in 1922 under the supervision of R.D. Bannerji.
  • The literal meaning of Mohenjodaro in sindhi language is mound of the dead.
  • The Great Bath, a granary, big halls, a bronze statue of a dancing girl, idol of a yogi and numerous seals have been found here.
  • The evidences of a assembly hall and proper planned houses with a kitchen and courtyard have been found at Mohenjodaro.
  • Seven layers of Mohenjodaro city directs that the city was destroyed and rebuilt seven times.

3. Lothal

  • A dockyard have been found at Lothal.
  • In 1957, Lothal was discovered by S.R. Rao in Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat.
  • Red & black clay pots, copper tools, brick built tank like structure, a bread making factory and a seal from Iran have been found at Lothal.
  • Linear scale of bronze have been found here.

4. Kalibangan

  • Kalibangan was not as well planned or organised as Mohenjodaro was.
  • It did not have a drainage system.
  • A number of agnikundas (firepits) have been found here.
  • Kalibangan was discovered in 1953. it is located in upper Rajasthan.
  • It saw two cultural phases viz. Pre-Harappan and Harappan.
  • A ploughed field have been found here.

5. Dhaulavira

  • Dhaulavira in Gujarat was discovered in 1992 by J.P. Joshi.
  • Dhaulavira shows all the three phases of Harappan civilization.
  • A script consists of big alphabets has been found on a gate in Dhaulavira.

Share

Related

Latest