Introduction to Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization)
- Indus Valley Civilization (2350-1750 BC) is also called as Harappan civilization because Harappa was the first site to be excavated in 1921 under the supervision of Daya Ram Sahni.
- The known extent of the civilization in the west is upto Sutkagendor in Baluchistan; Alamgirpur South; and Manda (Jammu and Kashmir) in the north.
- Indus Valley civilization belongs to Bronge Age/ Chalcolithic age. Hence, it is also called bronze age civilization.
- Contemporary civilizations of Harappan civilization are Mesopotamian or Sumerian civilization, Egyptian civilization and Chinese civilization.
Important Sites of Harappan Civilization
Montegomari, Punjab (Pakistan)
Larkana, Sindh (Pakistan)
Sabarmati & Bhogva
Note: large number of Harappan Civilization sites were found in Gujarat.
General Facts About Some Sites
- Working floors consisting of rows of circular brick platforms which were meant for threshing grain have been found here.
- Six granaries and sixteen agnikundas (firepits) have been found here.
- People of Harappa knew the process of making tarcoal.
- Main gate for the entry in the houses of Harappa was in the north direction.
- R-37 cementry have been found here.
- Terracotto figurine of Mother goddess have been found here.
- Mohenjodaro was discovered in 1922 under the supervision of R.D. Bannerji.
- The literal meaning of Mohenjodaro in sindhi language is mound of the dead.
- The Great Bath, a granary, big halls, a bronze statue of a dancing girl, idol of a yogi and numerous seals have been found here.
- The evidences of a assembly hall and proper planned houses with a kitchen and courtyard have been found at Mohenjodaro.
- Seven layers of Mohenjodaro city directs that the city was destroyed and rebuilt seven times.
- A dockyard have been found at Lothal.
- In 1957, Lothal was discovered by S.R. Rao in Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat.
- Red & black clay pots, copper tools, brick built tank like structure, a bread making factory and a seal from Iran have been found at Lothal.
- Linear scale of bronze have been found here.
- Kalibangan was not as well planned or organised as Mohenjodaro was.
- It did not have a drainage system.
- A number of agnikundas (firepits) have been found here.
- Kalibangan was discovered in 1953. it is located in upper Rajasthan.
- It saw two cultural phases viz. Pre-Harappan and Harappan.
- A ploughed field have been found here.
- Dhaulavira in Gujarat was discovered in 1992 by J.P. Joshi.
- Dhaulavira shows all the three phases of Harappan civilization.
- A script consists of big alphabets has been found on a gate in Dhaulavira.