Staffing Policy

By | May 17, 2020

Staffing policy is concerned with the selection of employees for particular jobs. The challenge is whether to fill the vacant positions with home (local) individuals or expatriate (imported) labour. Management can select any of the following staffing policies: Ethnocentric Approach: Here, the home country nationals fill the top-level or key level management positions in the host country. It… Read More »

Financial Statements

By | April 18, 2020

Financial statements are the end product of an accounting process. Financial statements are historical and are prepared by following the accounting concepts and principles. According to John N Myer, “Financial statements provide a summary of accounts of business enterprise, the balance sheet reflecting the assets, liabilities and capital as on a certain date and income statements showing the… Read More »

Collective Bargaining

By | April 17, 2020

Collective bargaining is a process of negotiations between employers and group of employees aimed at reaching agreements in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance procedures and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions. The interests of the employees are commonly represented by representatives… Read More »

Types of Organisational Culture

By | April 13, 2020

Clan  Culture: In Clan Culture, the working atmosphere is amiable. There are commonalities among the people and the entire organisation is equivalent to a large family. The leaders seem a fatherly figure, while royalty and tradition hold the organisation together. The sense of unity binds the organisation together. There is strong peer pressure. The leader here is a… Read More »

Bureaucracy Theory

By | April 12, 2020

It can be defined as the organisational structure with highly routine operating tasks performed under formalised rules and regulations with tasks assigned to various departments. It gives foundation to formal organisation. Max Weber evolved bureaucratic theory in his work, “The Theory of Social and Economic Organisation.” Elements of Bureaucracy: Hierarchy: There are managerial levels where each subordinate is… Read More »

Management Roles

By | April 5, 2020

Mintzberg has propounded various roles that a manager has to fulfil. These roles were published in his book ‘Mintzberg on Management: Inside our strange world of organisations‘ in the year 1990. The roles are enlisted below: Interpersonal Role: Interpersonal roles are those roles that deals with human, such as making networks i.e. liasons, motivating people i.e leadership and… Read More »

Porter’s Five Forces

By | November 19, 2019

Porter’s Five Forces is a useful understanding of the competitiveness of your business environment, and for identifying your strategy’s potential profitability. Porter’s Five forces are: Threat of Entry Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers Threat of Substitutes Rivalry among competitors 1. The threat of entry: Depends on barriers of entry and expected retaliation. Factors influencing barriers… Read More »

Gagne’s Nine Levels of Learning

By | May 25, 2019

Gagne’s Nine Levels of Learning is also known as Gagne’s Nine Conditions of Learning. Gagne’s Nine events of instruction or Gagne’s taxonomy of learning. Gagne’s nine-step process that detailed each element required for effective learning. The model is useful for all types of learnings, you can see these nine steps in the figure below. Robert Gagne, in his… Read More »

Types of Information Systems

By | December 12, 2018

There are various types of information systems, few of them are listed below: Transaction processing system Decision support system executive information system Management information system Workflow system Enterprise resource planning and Expert systems. About each one of the information systems explained below in brief. 1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) A Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) is used primarily for… Read More »

International Maritime Bureau (IMB)

By | June 13, 2018

The International Maritime Bureau (IMB) has MOU with the World Customs Organization (WCO) and has observer status with Interpol (ICPO). IMB’s primary responsibility is to protect the integrity of international trade by seeking out fraud and malpractice. For over 25 years, it has used industry knowledge, experience and access to a many well-placed contacts around the world to do this:… Read More »