There are various types of information systems, few of them are listed below:
- Transaction processing system
- Decision support system
- executive information system
- Management information system
- Workflow system
- Enterprise resource planning and
- Expert systems.
About each one of the information systems explained below in brief.
1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
A Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) is used primarily for record keeping which is required in any organization to conduct the business. Examples of TPS are sales order entry, payroll, and shipping records etc. TPS is used for periodic report generation in a scheduled manner. TPS is also used for producing reports on demand as well as exception reports.
2. Decision Support System (DSS)
Decision Support System (DSS) serves the management of an organization. A decision support system has sophisticated data analysis tools, which support and assist all aspects of problem-specific decision-making. DSS may use data from external sources such as current stock prices to enhance decision-making. DSS is used when the problem is complex and the information needed to make the best decision is difficult to obtain and use. DSS is developed with the help of decision-makers in an organization. DSS helps in the appropriate decision-making process and does not make any decision.
3. Executive Information System (EIS)
An Executive Information System (EIS) is also called the Executive Support System. Senior managers of an organization use the EIS. Therefore, it must be easy to use so that executives can use it without any assistance. EIS can do trend analysis, exception reporting and have drill-down capabilities. The results are usually presented in a graphical form tailored to the executive’s information needs. EIS has on-line analysis tools and they access a broad range of internal and external data.
4. Management Information Systems (MIS)
Management Information System (MIS) provides the management routine summary of basic operations of the organization. The essential services are recorded by the TPS of the organization and MIS consolidates the data on sales, production etc. MIS provides routine information to managers and decision makers. The primary objective behind installing an MIS in the organization is to increase operational efficiency. MIS may support marketing, production, finance, etc.
5. Workflow System
A workflow system is a rule-based management system that directs, coordinates and monitors the execution of an interrelated set of tasks arranged to form a business process. There are three types of workflow software. They are:
- Administrative workflow systems focus on the tracking of expense reports, travel requests, messages.
- An Ad-hoc workflow system deals with the shaping of product, sales proposals and strategic plans.
- Production workflow systems are concerned with mortgage loans and insurance claims.
A workflow system may be Internet-based and may be combined with e-mail. A workflow system may be based on server architecture that may use a database or file server.
6. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a business process management software that allows an organization to use a system of integrated programs capable of managing a company’s vital business operations for an entire multi-site, global organization.
7. Expert Systems
The expert systems have the ability to make suggestions and act like an expert in a particular field of an organization. An expert system has an extensive knowledge base.