Vitamins – Function, Deficiency and Sources

By | August 28, 2015
Vitamin Function Deficiency Sources
A-Retinol
  • For normal growth in children.
  • To maintain conjunctiva aids in night vision.
  • To maintain skin and mucous membrane.
  • Roughness and dry skin.
  • Inability to see in dim light.
  • Xerophthalmia leading to blindness (cornea becomes rough and dry).
  • Nyctalopia (Night blindness).
Fish, liver, oil, butter, milk, egg
B1-Thiamine
  • 1st vitamin to be discovered by Eijkman in 1897.
  • Essential for healthy nerves & mucous membrane.
  • (Destroyed by high temperature & banking soda)
  • Causes Beri-Beri
  • Checks growth in children
Yeast, bacon, vegetables
B2-Riboflavine
  • To obtain steady and continuous release of energy
  • Checks growth
  • Skin becomes rough and red.
  • Diarrhoea and digestive upsets.
Milk, cereals, vegetables, yeast, meat
B3-Niacin or Nictonic Acid
  • Essential for healthy digestive function.
  • Helps to control cholesterol level.
  • Causes Diarrhoea
  • A condition known as ‘Pellagra’.
Liver, beef, fish, cereal, legumes etc.
B5-Pantothenic Acid
  • Essential nutrient.
  • Used in the synthesis of coenzyme A.
  • Rare, Similar to Vitamin B deficiencies.
Meat whole grains, broccoli etc.
B6-Pyrodoxine
  • Make neurotransmitters
  • Helps to control blood level of homo cysteine.
  • Causes peripheral neuropathy
  • Depression, irritability, confusion etc.
Fish, Spinach, potato, soyabeans, liver, chicken etc.
B7-Biotin or Vitamin H
  • As a cofactor that aids in the transformer of CO2 groups to targets.
  • In metabolic pathways.
  • Seborrhoeic dermatitis, hair loss, dermatitis.
Soybeans, legumes, whole grains, egg yolks, brewer’s yeast.
B9-Folic Acid
  • Works with vitamins B6 and B12 and other nutrients to control blood levels of the amino acid homo cysteine.
  • Promotes normal digestion.
  • Diarrhea
  • Glossitis.
  • Depression
  • Brain defects.
Yeast, legumes, liver, dairy products, eggs, seafood, spinach.
B12-Cobalamin
  • Important for metabolism.
  • Helps in the formation of RBCs.
  • Maintenance of the central nervous system.
  • Poor memory
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Megaloblastic anemia (DNA synthesis inhibition)
Yogurt, fish, diary products, eggs, salmon beef, sardines
C-Abscorbic Acid
  • For proper formation of collagen in connective tissues.
  • Formation of bones and teeth.
  • Scurvy
  • Gums bleeding
  • Connective tissue defects.
Citrus fruits, tomatoes, Green leaf vegetables, potato.
D-Calciferol
  • Necessary for absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorous.
  • Rickets
  • Ostemalacia: Softening of the bones.
Can be formed by sunlight.
Butter, cheese, milk, salmon, egg yolk
E-Tocopherol
  • An antioxidant that protects body tissue from damage caused by free radicals.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, retinopathy red blood cell, destruction
Vegetable oils, nuts seeds, fruit juices.
K-Phylloquinone
  • For proper clotting of blood.
  • Risk of hemorrhagic disease
  • Defective coagulation and bleeding.
Cabbage, salad vegetables, soybeans, olive oil, dried fruits.
P-Flavonoid
  • As antioxidants.
  • Vitamin C supports
  • Antibiotic activity.
  • Nose bleeding
  • Swelling and injury
  • Weakened immune function
Onion, broccoli, green beans, orange juice, cranberry, citrus fruits.