Jute is obtained from the Bark of the jute plant stem and it grows best in well drained sandy loam and requires warm and humid climate. It requires temperature more than 25° C and rainfall of more than 150 cm per annum.
The fibre of jute is mainly cultivated in the Hugi river valley region because of the tropical and moist weather and the deltaic alluvial soil. This is also known as the “Golden Fibre of the Bengal‘.
In 1855, the first factory of Jute was established in India at Rishra neat Calcutta. But due to partition of India, as 80% of the jute growing areas went to Bangladesh, while all the mills remained in India. This problem was overcome to a large extent by extending the area under the jute and mesta production.
In the recent past, there has been slight dispersal of the industry to Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh because of the increasing demand for gunny bags in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, due to rapid development of sugar and cement industry and because of availability of local fibres like mesta and Bimilipatlan jute.
India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute good production whereas India is the largest exporter of jute goods after Bangladesh.
India, Bangladesh and China accounts for the 85% of world’s jute production.
At present, there are 77 jute mills in India. Of these 60 are present in West Bengal state, 7 in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, 3 in Bihar, 3 in Uttar Pradesh, one each in Assam, Odisha, Tripura and Chattisgarh.