Sugar Industry in India

By | March 29, 2016

India is the second largest sugar producing country of the world after Brazil. In 1840, the first sugar industry was set up in Betia (Bihar).
Sugar production is known in India since ancient times, but modern sugar industry in India developed in first decade of the twentieth century.

Indian sugar industry is the second largest agro-based industry in India after cotton textiles. the basic raw material is sugar cane, which has some specific qualities.

  1. It is a weight losing raw material.
  2. It cannot be stored for long, because in that case, it loses the sucrose content.
  3. It can not be transported over long distances.

Till 1960, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar were the leading sugar producers in India but later the tendency of decentralization of this industry were developed in South India because of the favourable climate, Black soils having high moisture retention capacity and development of tubewell irrigation.

In southern states of India sugarcane being of the tropical variety, has more sucrose content.

The crushing season is longer in the south India, where it lasts from October to May-June. In the north India, it lasts from November to February.

Geographical Distributions
1 Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh is the leading producer of sugar.
There are two distinct regions of sugar production in Uttar Pradesh. One region consists of Gorakhpur, deoria, Basti and Gonda in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The second region consists of Meerut, Sharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bijnor and Moradabad.
2 Bihar The districts of Darbhanga, Saran, Champaran and Muzaffarpur are the leading producers of sugar in Bihar.
3 Punjab Phagwara and dhuri in Punjab are the main centers of sugar production.
4 Haryana Ambala, Rohtak and Panipat.
5 Maharashtra In peninsular India, Maharashtra is the most is the most important state where sugarcane cultivation and sugar mills are integrated in cooperative system.
Major centers of sugar production in Mahrashtra are Nasik, Pune, Sastra, Sangli, Kolhapur and Solapur.
6 Karnataka Munirabad, Shimoga and Mandya.
7 Tamil Nadu Nalikupuram, Pugulur, Coimbatore and Pandyarajpuram.
8 Andhra Pradesh Nizamabad, Medak, west and East Godavari, Vishakapatnam and Chittoor.
9 Odisha Bargarh and Rayagada.