- Great Plains of India is also called the Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plains. It extends for a distance of about 3200 km and width of this plain varies from 150 km to 300 km.
- The plain was formed as a result of filling of marine depressions by detrital materials brought by water. Plains were formed after the upliftment of Himalayas. Majority of thus plain consists of Alluvial soils.
- On the basis of some characteristic land features this plain is divided into following parts:
- Bhabar Region: Bhabhar Region is 8 to 16 km wide, region lies along the foothills of Himalayas between Indus and Teesta rivers. It contains pebbles & stones which are extremely pervious. Small river and streams disappear underground on reaching this region.
- Terai Region: 15 to 30 km wide belt found south of the Bhabar region is called as Terai. It is a marshy tract and zone of excessive dampness with the thick grown of forests and high biological diversity. The speed of river flow in Terai region is slow. Disappeared rivers of Bhabar region again appeared in terai region that’s why, this region is a flood prone region. In Terai region rice is grown mostly of the lands for cultivation. E.g: Sitapur, Rampur, Lakhimpur, Philibhit, Bareilly region of Uttar Pradesh.
- Bangar Region: It is is the higher part of the plains, where the floodwater cannot reach. Bangar region is made up of old alluvium and it contains pebbles and coarser sediments. These plains are less fertile. In this region, whenever the high lands are created by stones and sand, it is locally called as ‘Bhur’. For example: Bhurs are found in the upper parts of Ganga-Yamuna doab.
- Khadar Region: Khadar Region is made up of new alluvium. In this region, floods bring new alluvium every year. Khadar region is mainly found along the river banks and contains fine particles or clays so Khadar region is fertile region.
- Deltaic Plains: Deltaic plains are formed by very fine alluvial soils formed by river deltas contain mainly clays are called delatic plains. These are very fertile and are suitable for jute & rice cultivation. For example: The Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, spread in India and Bangladesh.
Importance of Indian Plains
- The Indian plains are the base for the survival of majority of the people in India, because many various types of crops can be grown in this region. The fertile alluvial plain helps in growing crops to feed human population as well as cattle. In these plains many agro-industries are established, these plains provide raw materials to these industries.
- These plains have sedimentary geological structure, these plains have large deposits of fossil fuels. Road and rail transport can be developed in this region, relatively with ease, due to its little or no slope gradient.