It is a formal and detailed examination of jobs in order to understand the tasks that need to be done and the skills required to do these tasks under this job. It is a significant HR activity. Job analysis provides the analyst with basic data related to specific jobs in terms of duties, responsibilities, skills, knowledge, degree of risk etc. It investigates into the responsibilities and duties that are necessary to perform a job. It tells what individuals do in their job and what are the requirements for performing the job satisfactorily.
Job analysis gives information that helps in writing job descriptions(what kind of work is to be performed) and job specification (what kind of skill, talent and knowledge is required, what kind of workforce is to be hired).
Role/Benefits of Job Analysis:
- Job analysis helps in human resource planning in determining the number and kinds of jobs and qualifications needed to fill these jobs.
- It makes the recruitment and selection process easier by way of the job description and job specification.
- Placement, orientation, training and development programmes can be directed towards helping the employee learn activities that are required to perform a given job.
- Job evaluation helps in determining the relative worth of various jobs by way of the job description. Job evaluation helps in ensuring the right pay remuneration.
- Job analysis establishes standards of performance that help in evaluating performance appraisal.
- Job specification, as apart of job analysis, helps in vocational guidance and counselling of employees.
- Job analysis makes organisation redesigning possible through time and motion study, job specification and work measurement.
- Job analysis provides the opportunity to trace out health hazards related to the job. This helps in minimising the chance of risks to the health and safety of employees.
Process of Job Analysis:
Organisational Analysis: To find linkages between jobs and organisational objectives through organisation charts and workflow charts.
Collection of Job Analysis Data: gathering data about jobs from personal interviewing, observation method, positions analysis questionnaire, the log of job incumbent.
Preparation of Job Description: It involves describing the contents of the jobs in terms of functions, duties, responsibilities etc.
Preparation of Jib Specification: It is a written statement of personal attributes in terms of traits, skills, training, qualification, experience needed to carry out the job.
Components of Job Analysis:
Job description is a written statement of what the job holder does, how it is to be done, under what conditions it is done and why it is done. It throws light on job content, environment and conditions of employment. It defines purpose and scope of the job.
Contents of Job Description:
- Job Title: Designation, code and department is mentioned in the job title.
- Job Summary: A brief write-up about the job.
- Job Activities: A description of the tasks done.
- Working conditions: Time, working hours and days.
Job specification is a written statement of personal attributes in terms of Skills, Knowledge and Abilities to perform a particular job. It is useful in the selection process to decide the right person.
Methods of Job Analysis:
Interview: Interviewing the group of people performing the same job, supervisor and employees.
Questionnaires: They can be structured lists e.g. describe the major duties of your job.
Observation: Personally observing the job of the employee.
Participant Logs/Diary: Asking the employees to keep a log of activities that they perform during the day and analysing it further on.
Past Experience: Noting the critical incidents described by the workers.
Position Analysis Questionnaire: It is a quantitative technique. Position analysis questionnaire consists of 194 items, which represents the roles performed in a particular position or job.