12 Features of the Indian Constitution
- Three-tier Government in India
- Central Government
- State Government
- Panchayati Raj Government
- Lengthiest Written Constitution
Constitution consisted of a Preamble, 395 articles (which were divided into 22 parts) and 8 Schedules.
- Federal System with Unitary Bias Essential characteristics of a federation are:
- Minimum two tiers of governments (India has 3 tiers of government).
- Distribution of powers between the units forming the federation.
- Supremacy of Constitution
- written Constitution.
- Rigidity of Constitution.
- Independent judiciary.
However, the Indian Constitution also contains a large number of unitary or non-federal features i.e. a strong Centre, Single citizenship, single Constitution all India services, emergency provisions and so on.
- Parliamentary form of Government
Features for government of parliamentary form are:
- Presence of nominal and real executives.
- Majority party rule.
- Collective responsibility of the executive to the Legislature.
- Leadership of the Prime Minister of the Chief minister
- Dissolution of the Lok Sabha.
- Synthesis of Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy
- Integrated and Independent Judiciary
- Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties
- Directive Principles of State Policy
- Universal Adult Franchise & Single Citizenship
- Emergency Provisions
- Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility
Unitary Features of Indian constitution:
- The States of Indian Don’t have their own constitution as in the states of USA and Australia have their own constitution.
- Uniform and single Citizenship in India (Australia and USA have double citizenship).
- Parliament can make the changes of territorial extent of a State without its consent.
- Parliament has full control over the Union list subjects as well as residuary power vests with the centre.
- With the two-third majority, Rajya Sabha can authorize Parliament to make laws on any State subject (Article 249).
- If there is any national emergency, Parliament has the right to make laws with respect to State subjects automatically (Article 250).
- On the request of two or more states, Parliament can legislate on particular State subject (Article 252).
- parliament can make laws on State Lists to comply with the international agreements (Article 253).
- In the case of president’s rule in state all the powers will be handed over to Parliament (Article 356).
- The governor of the state is appointed by the President and the former is not responsible to the State Legislature (Article 155).
- Parliament can give some financial orders or can order to reserve money bills passed by states (Article 160).
- Centre can give administrative directions to the States (Article 256).
- The all Indian services official are appointed by centre but salary are paid and controlled by States (Article 312).
- Judges of High Courts are appointed by the President of India (Article 216), and states don’t play any role in this.