The geographical area of the Telangana State is 1,12,077 Sq. Kms. and the population of Telangana state is 350.04 lakhs consisting of 176.12 Lakh males and 173.92 Lakh females, Telangana is the twelfth largest state in terms of both area and size of population in union of India. The sex ratio is being 988 in the Telangana state as per the Census of India, 2011. The details of population with males and females of Telangana state as Census of India, 2011 is shown below in graph.
Growth of Telangana Population
The people of the Telangana state are predominantly residing in rural areas with 61.12% and the rest of 38.88% are residing in urban areas. The overall growth of total population during the decade 2001 to 2011 is 13.58%, whereas it was 18.77% in the preceding decade. The growth of the population in urban areas has been witnessing a significant increase. Urban population in the State grew by 38.12% during the decade 2001 to 2011 as compared with 25.13% in the preceding decade. In sharp contrast, rural population in the state grew by a modest 2.13% as per the 2011 census, which is much higher than the United Nations estimates of world population growth at 1.23%. Around 30% of total urban population is residing in the capital city of Hyderabad alone. A graph on decadal growth rates of Telangana population from 1951-61 to 2001-11 is shown below.
Sex Ratio of Population
The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1,000 males. This ratio for the Telangana state is 988 according to 2011 Census of India. One distinguishing feature is that the sex ratio in the districts of Nizamabad, Adilabad, Karimnagar and Khammam is over 1,000. The sex ratio has been witnessing an improvement in the State from 967 in 1991 to 971 in 2001 and further to 988 in 2011. Despite a favorable sex ratio of the total population, the sex ratio of children in the age group of 0-6 years is declined from 957 in 2001 to 932 in 2011. The sex ratio of the SC population at 1,008 in 2011 is much higher than the State average of 988 in all districts, except Rangareddy, Hyderabad and Mahabubnagar districts. The sex ratio of ST population at 977 is marginally lower than the State average of 988, but it is higher in Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nizamabad and Khammam districts.
The pictorial presentation of Sex Ratio of population, including children is given in the following graphs.
Density of Population
The density of Telangana state population ranges from 170 to 18,172 per square kilometer. Adilabad district has the lowest density of 170 per sq. kilometer and Hyderabad district with highest density of 18,172 per sq. kilometer. The districts of Adilabad, Khammam and Mahabubnagar have lower density of population with 170, 197 and 220 per sq. kilometer respectively, as compared with the State average of 312 per sq. kilometer.
The literacy rate of the Telangana State as per 2011 census is 66.54%. Male literacy and female literacy are 75.04% and 57.99%, respectively. Hyderabad district is highest with 83.25% and Mahabubnagar district at lowest with 55.04%, the same is depicted in the following graph.
Social Composition of Population
The population of Telangana State consists predominantly of backward classes scheduled castes (SC) and scheduled tribes (ST). Out of the total population of Telangana State, scheduled castes constitute 15.45% and the scheduled tribes 9.08%. There has been a significant increase in the percentage of tribal population in total population from 2.81% in 1961 to 8.19% in 1981 and further to 9.34% in 2011. The increase is mainly on account of the inclusion of certain castes under the category of scheduled tribes.
Details regarding population density, sex ratio and percentage of SC and ST population of Telangana state are represented below in tabular form